Review Volume 13, Issue 8 pp 12258—12272

Growth differentiation factor 11: a “rejuvenation factor” involved in regulation of age-related diseases?

The signal transduction of GDF11. The figure displays the canonical signal transduction mediated by R-SMAD (SMAD 2/3, SMAD 1,5,8), assisted by the Co-SMAD (SMAD4). The non-canonical pathway is driven mainly by TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and Ras.

Figure 3. The signal transduction of GDF11. The figure displays the canonical signal transduction mediated by R-SMAD (SMAD 2/3, SMAD 1,5,8), assisted by the Co-SMAD (SMAD4). The non-canonical pathway is driven mainly by TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and Ras.