Figure 1. Experimental diagram of the current study. A total of 40 rats were first acclimated for 2 weeks, and then physiological parameters were evaluated. After being subjected to 2VO or sham surgery, the rats were treated with adalimumab or vehicle for 9 weeks (four times a week). At the end of drug injection, physiological parameters were evaluated again. Then, the rats were subjected to the Morris water maze test and sacrificed after the behavior test. Samples were collected for biochemical and morphological experiments accordingly.