Review Volume 13, Issue 10 pp 14522—14543

Effects of exercise on cellular and tissue aging

AMPK as an effector node on the effects of exercise upon the different hallmarks of aging. AMP, adenosine monophosphate; AMPK, AMP- activated protein kinase; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; AGEs, advanced glycation end-products; FoxO3, Forkhead Box O3; LKB1, Liver kinase B1; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; mTORC1, mTOR complex 1; NAD+, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NADH, Reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NFkB, Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; NRF2, Nuclear factor erythroid 2-Related Factor 2; p53, Tumor suppressor protein 53; PGC-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; SIRT1, Silent information regulator. Created in BioRender.

Figure 2. AMPK as an effector node on the effects of exercise upon the different hallmarks of aging. AMP, adenosine monophosphate; AMPK, AMP- activated protein kinase; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; AGEs, advanced glycation end-products; FoxO3, Forkhead Box O3; LKB1, Liver kinase B1; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; mTORC1, mTOR complex 1; NAD+, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NADH, Reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NFkB, Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; NRF2, Nuclear factor erythroid 2-Related Factor 2; p53, Tumor suppressor protein 53; PGC-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; SIRT1, Silent information regulator. Created in BioRender.