Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 13 pp 16990—17023

Sex differences in genetic and environmental influences on frailty and its relation to body mass index and education

Parameter estimates from the best-fitting bivariate twin models. (A) ADE bivariate quantitative sex-limitation model between frailty index (FI) and body mass index (BMI), adjusted for age. Single headed-arrows represent the proportion of each traits explained by latent (circular) variance components; while double-headed arrows represent correlations between variance components. H indicates the sum of additive and dominance genetic factors; E indicates unique environmental factors; M and F are the estimates for men and women respectively. (B) ACE bivariate quantitative sex-limitation model between FI and education, adjusted for age. A indicates additive genetic factors; C indicates common environmental factors. (C) Phenotypic correlations of FI with BMI and education among men and women (with 95% confidence intervals), and the proportion of correlations explained by total genetic, common environmental and unique environmental factors. Note: Model-fitting results and parameter estimates can be found in Supplementary Tables 3, 4.

Figure 1. Parameter estimates from the best-fitting bivariate twin models. (A) ADE bivariate quantitative sex-limitation model between frailty index (FI) and body mass index (BMI), adjusted for age. Single headed-arrows represent the proportion of each traits explained by latent (circular) variance components; while double-headed arrows represent correlations between variance components. H indicates the sum of additive and dominance genetic factors; E indicates unique environmental factors; M and F are the estimates for men and women respectively. (B) ACE bivariate quantitative sex-limitation model between FI and education, adjusted for age. A indicates additive genetic factors; C indicates common environmental factors. (C) Phenotypic correlations of FI with BMI and education among men and women (with 95% confidence intervals), and the proportion of correlations explained by total genetic, common environmental and unique environmental factors. Note: Model-fitting results and parameter estimates can be found in Supplementary Tables 3, 4.