Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 14 pp 18757—18768

Curcumin in combination with homoharringtonine suppresses lymphoma cell growth by inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway

Combination of curcumin with HHT inhibits tumorigenesis in Raji xenografts in vivo. (A) Tumor volume was calculated. (B) Raji xenograft tumors were excised and photographed. Tumor weights were calculated for each group of mice. (C) A TUNEL assay was used to assess cell apoptosis in tumor tissues. (D) p-Smad3, Smad3, E-cadherin and N-cadherin expressions were measured in tumor tissues using Western blotting. (E) Relative p-Smad3, E-cadherin and N-cadherin expressions in tumor tissues normalized to Smad3, β-actin and β-actin. (F, G) Smad4 expression in tumor tissues was measured by Western blotting. Relative Smad4 was determined by normalizing to Histone H3. *P **P ##P

Figure 5. Combination of curcumin with HHT inhibits tumorigenesis in Raji xenografts in vivo. (A) Tumor volume was calculated. (B) Raji xenograft tumors were excised and photographed. Tumor weights were calculated for each group of mice. (C) A TUNEL assay was used to assess cell apoptosis in tumor tissues. (D) p-Smad3, Smad3, E-cadherin and N-cadherin expressions were measured in tumor tissues using Western blotting. (E) Relative p-Smad3, E-cadherin and N-cadherin expressions in tumor tissues normalized to Smad3, β-actin and β-actin. (F, G) Smad4 expression in tumor tissues was measured by Western blotting. Relative Smad4 was determined by normalizing to Histone H3. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 compared to control group; ##P < 0.01 compared to HHT group.