Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 22 pp 24829—24849

Bone morphogenetic protein 9 enhances osteogenic and angiogenic responses of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells cocultured with umbilical vein endothelial cells through the PI3K/AKT/m-TOR signaling pathway


Figure 6. Effect of BMP9 induced in vitro angiogenic differentiation and subcutaneous vascular invasion of PLGA-cells composite in vivo. Illustrative diagram demonstrating cells treated according to the experimental design and seeded on electron-spun PLGA scaffold, which were implanted into the dorsal subcutaneous space of mice (A); Representative image of the macromorphological observation of PLGA implants located on subcutaneous tissue at 5 weeks (B); The topological structure of PLGA and cell-PLGA-hybrids were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (magnification ×1000) (C); Immunofluorescence staining and its quantification analysis were performed to detect the CD31 expression (green) in PLGA scaffold subcutaneously (×400, bar: 20 μm) (D, E) (*P < 0.05).