Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 22 pp 24829—24849

Bone morphogenetic protein 9 enhances osteogenic and angiogenic responses of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells cocultured with umbilical vein endothelial cells through the PI3K/AKT/m-TOR signaling pathway


Figure 8. A proposed regulatory loop of BMP9 enhanced osteogenesis and angiogenesis of hAMSCs cocultured with HUVECs. BMP9 upregulates the osteogenic relative factors such as OPN, OCN, Runx2, BSP, and COL-I in hAMSCs, and increases the expression of angiogenic factors VEGF, vWF, CD31, and ANT-1 in HUVECs. Hence, BMP9 potentiates only osteogenic also angiogenic differentiation by coculturing hAMSCs with HUVECs. This coupling effect of osteogenesis and angiogenesis may lead to efficient bone matrix formation and ossification, and BMP9 exerts its osteogenic and angiogenic functions via BMP/Smad1/5/8 and PI3K/AKT/m-TOR signaling pathways.