Aging-US: Dietary supplementation with green tea catechins and cocoa flavanols08-09-2021
Aging-US published "Beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with green tea catechins and cocoa flavanols on aging-related regressive changes in the mouse neuromuscular system" which reported that green tea extract (GTE) and cocoa-supplemented diets significantly improved survival rate of mice. GTE increased density of VAChT and VGluT2 afferent synapses on neuromuscular junctions.
Cocoa, but not GTE, reduced aging-associated microgliosis and increased the proportion of neuroprotective microglial phenotypes.
Dr. Jordi Calderó from IRBLleida said, "Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with age, is considered the main causative factor of the physical performance decline in the elderly."
Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with age, is considered the main causative factor of the physical performance decline in the elderly. The compromised muscular function associated to sarcopenia has a negative impact on the life quality of older adults and increases the risk for disability, fall-associated injuries, morbidity, and mortality. The authors have recently reported a marked increase in the microglial and astroglial pro-inflammatory phenotypes (M1 and A1, respectively) in the spinal cord of aged mice. This may be due to the presence of anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective (M2 and A2) glial subpopulations. Caloric restriction, based on a diet low in calories, has been shown to attenuate aging sarcopenia in various species by acting at different levels of the skeletal muscle.
Figure 9. Impact of GTE- and cocoa-supplemented diets on microglial activation in ventral horn spinal cord of old mice. Sections of lumbar spinal cords from mice of different experimental groups were double immunostained for Iba1 and CD68, a marker of activated phagocytic microglia. (A) Quantification of CD68-positive profiles around MNs in control, GTE and cocoa groups. (B–E4) Representative confocal micrographs used for data analysis showing CD68 (green) in combination with Iba1 (red) and fluorescent Nissl staining (blue, for MN visualization), as indicated in panels. A higher magnification of area delimited by the dashed square in C4 is shown in (B). Data in the graph are expressed as the mean ± SEM; a total of 40-50 images per experimental group were analyzed (number of animals per group: control [Ctrl] = 3, GTE = 4, cocoa = 5). *p < 0.05 vs. Ctrl (one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni's post hoc test). Scale bar: 10 μm in (C) and 50 μm in (E4) (valid for C1–E3).
Caloric restriction has also been reported to ameliorate age-related changes in rodent NMJs and to prevent MN and motor axon degeneration found to occur with aging [11, 21]. In a similar way, some dietary supplements have been shown to counteract age related changes that contribute to neuromuscular dysfunction (reviewed by [12) Plant flavonoids have gained particular attention as dietary compounds for keeping good health and preventing a number of diseases, particularly cardiac disorders and cancer.
The Calderó Research Team concluded in their Aging-US Research Output that, green tea and cocoa flavonoids from GTE and cocoa significantly increased survival rate of aged mice. Both diets preserved NMJ innervation and maturity, delayed the senescence process of the skeletal muscle, and enhanced its regenerative capacity. Future research is needed to investigate whether higher doses of flavonoid are needed and/or longer-term interventions can help restore proper motor function.
Full Text - https://www.aging-us.com/article/203336/text
Correspondence to: Jordi Calderó email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Launched in 2009, Aging-US publishes papers of general interest and biological significance in all fields of aging research as well as topics beyond traditional gerontology, including, but not limited to, cellular and molecular biology, human age-related diseases, pathology in model organisms, cancer, signal transduction pathways (e.g., p53, sirtuins, and PI-3K/AKT/mTOR among others), and approaches to modulating these signaling pathways.