Aging-US: Inducing apoptosis and enhancing cytoprotective autophagy in colon cancer07-25-2021
Aging-US published "Antrodia salmonea induces apoptosis and enhances cytoprotective autophagy in colon cancer cells" which reported that 3- -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay revealed that AS showed a remarkable effect on cell viability in colon cancer cells; SW620, HCT116, and HT29. Annexin V/propidium iodide stained cells indicated that AS induced both early/late apoptosis in SW620 cells.
Microtubule- associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3B accumulation, sequestosome 1 activation, autophagy related 4B cysteine peptidase inactivation, acidic vesicular organelles formation, and Beclin-1/Bcl-2 dysregulation revealed that AS-induced autophagy.
Suppression of apoptosis by z-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone did not however block AS-induced autophagy, suggesting that autophagy was not attenuated by the AS-induced apoptosis.
Application of N-acetylcysteine prevented AS-induced cell death, caspase-3 activation, LC3-II accumulation, and AVOs formation, indicating that AS-induced apoptosis and autophagy was mediated by reactive oxygen species.
Furthermore, AS-induced cytoprotective autophagy and apoptosis through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling cascades.
Dr. You-Cheng Hseu from The China Medical University as well as The Asia University said, "Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most deadly and fourth most frequently identified cancer in the world."
Cancers of the colon emerge from the epithelial cells of colon which line the lumen of the organ.
As an insufficient amount of apoptosis contributes to cancer, the focus in the treatment of cancer is on targeting apoptosis.
The major issues with cancer cells are cells grow and proliferate out of control and become resistant to apoptosis.
Figure 15. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose (15 mg/kg) of AOM (the first week) followed by 3 times of 2% DSS given in the drinking water every two days (the second week). AS (150 and 300 mg/kg) was given oral administration every two days. Mice were sacrificed on 15 weeks after CAC induction and the expression of (A) p-NFκB, iNOS (B) VEGF and PCNA were analyzed using Western blotting.
In the case there is no apoptosis, then autophagy induces a type of cell death which is referred as autophagic cell death also called Type II programmed cell death that differs from Type I programmed cell death i.e. apoptosis.
In SW620 cells, AS decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis and cytoprotective autophagy via intracellular ROS and interruption of the signaling pathways for ERK and AKT.
The Hseu Research Team concluded in their Aging-US Research Output, "all the results revealed that Antrodia salmonea potentially acted as inducer of cytoprotective autophagy and apoptosis by the regulation of ROS in colon cancer cells. In vivo data revealed that AS reduced colitis-associated tumorigenesis in AOM/DSS treated mice. In addition, this is the leading research to provide insight about Antrodia salmonea as an important source of fungi for treatment of human colon cancer. These findings could provide a model of the effects of Antrodia salmonea for possible studies of large animal as well as human and thus promote the production of its nutraceutical products"
Full Text - https://www.aging-us.com/article/203019/text
Correspondence to: You-Cheng Hseu email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Launched in 2009, Aging-US publishes papers of general interest and biological significance in all fields of aging research as well as topics beyond traditional gerontology, including, but not limited to, cellular and molecular biology, human age-related diseases, pathology in model organisms, cancer, signal transduction pathways (e.g., p53, sirtuins, and PI-3K/AKT/mTOR among others), and approaches to modulating these signaling pathways.