The corneal endothelium (CE) dysfunction impairs optical transparency and leads to corneal allograft failure. Morphologically, CE cells are characterized by premature senescence at the late stage of corneal graft. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we found that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is elevated in the CE of late graft failure. In addition, senescence-associated gene p21 and p16 are increased as well, which is consistent with their elevation upon TGF-β treatment in human corneal endothelial cell B4G12. Furthermore, TGF-β treatment leads to high positive ratio of SA-β-gal, indicating B4G12 cells undergo cellular senescence. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that TGF-β could induce mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production and mtROS scavenger could rescue CE cell senescence upon TGF-β treatment. Our study provides new evidence that elevated TGF-β plays a crucial role in the CE cell senescence and loss in chronic corneal graft failure, which could be potential targets for clinical treatment.