Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 2 pp 501—522
Prognostic value of immune checkpoint molecules in head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis
- 1 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510055, China
Received: September 4, 2018 Accepted: January 1, 2019 Published: January 22, 2019https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.101756
How to Cite
Copyright: Jia et al. This is an open‐access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Immune checkpoint molecules are important targets in cancer immunotherapy, but their association with prognosis in patients with head and neck cancer is controversial. In this meta-analysis, we searched for 12 immune checkpoint molecules in the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases and retrieved 52 studies with 7127 participants. Among the molecules included in the search, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), and programmed death 1 (PD-1) met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Higher expression of IDO was associated with poorer overall survival in head and neck cancer patients (P = 0.011), but higher expression of PD-L1 correlated with better overall survival specifically in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients (P = 0.01). In a sensitivity analysis, higher PD-L1 expression correlated with better progression-free survival (P = 0.043), and was associated with better overall survival in Caucasian subjects (P = 0.02), nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients (P = 0.015), and studies with small sample sizes (P = 0.001). PD-1 had no prognostic significance. There was no publication bias affecting the results. Thus, among the immune checkpoint molecules, IDO and PD-L1 are potential prognostic predictors in head and neck cancer.