Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized with multifocal demyelination resulting from activation and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the central nerve system. Recent reports suggest that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) / serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase 1 (SGK1) signaling pathway contributes to the pathology of MS through regulation of immunity. However, the role of this signaling pathway in MS-related macrophage activation and polarization has not been studied. Here, we used an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model for MS to study the role of p38MAPK/SGK1 signaling in the macrophage polarization and its effects on the development and severity of EAE. Here, we found that p38MAPK/SGK1 signaling is required for IL4-induced M2 macrophage polarization in vitro. Chitin-induced M2 macrophage polarization reduces the severity of EAE in mice. Generation of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying sh-p38 or sh-SGK1 under the control of a CD68 promoter successfully knockdown p38 or SGK1 levels in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with AAV-sh-p38 or AAV-sh-SGK1 abolished the effects of Chitin on macrophage polarization and the severity of EAE. Thus, our data suggest that p38MAPK/SGK1 signaling induces M2 macrophage polarization, which reduces the severity of EAE, a model for MS.