Emerging evidence indicates that noncoding RNAs play regulatory roles in aging and disease. The functional roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in physiology and disease are not completely understood. Little is known about lncRNAs in the context of human aging and socio-environmental conditions. Microarray profiling of lncRNAs and mRNAs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young and old white (n=16) and African American (AA) males (n=16) living above or below poverty from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study revealed changes in both lncRNAs and mRNAs with age and poverty status in white males, but not in AA males. We validated lncRNA changes in an expanded cohort (n=40); CTD-3247F14.2, GAS5, H19, TERC and MEG3 changed significantly with age, whereas AK022914, GAS5, KB-1047C11.2, MEG3 and XLOC_003262 changed with poverty. Mitochondrial function and response to DNA damage and stress were pathways enriched in younger individuals. Response to stress, viral infection, and immune signals were pathways enriched in individuals living above poverty. These data show that both human age and a marker of social adversity influence lncRNA expression, which may provide insight about molecular pathways underlying aging and social factors that affect disparities in aging and disease.