Liver resection is a standard treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and long-term outcomes of octogenarians with HCC treated with liver resection. Records of patients who underwent liver resection for HCC were reviewed, and patients older and younger than 80 years were compared. There were 77 patients 80 years of age or older and 3,309 younger than 80 years. Hepatitis C virus infection was the most common etiology among the octogenarians (43.1%), followed by non-viral causes (37.5%). The older group had more co-morbidity but less hepatitis B virus infection and cirrhosis. More than 70% of the non-viral older group had diabetes mellitus, as compared to only 21.6% in the viral older group. The older group had rates of perioperative morbidity, mortality, disease-free survival, and overall survival comparable to the younger group (all p>0.1). Multivariate analysis revealed that α-fetoprotein ≥400 ng/mL, tumor size ≥10 cm, and vascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for overall survival in the older patients. These findings demonstrate that liver resection is a justified treatment for HCC in octogenarians, and it can achieve surgical outcomes comparable to those in younger populations.