Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 5 pp 1564—1579

Running wheel access fails to resolve impaired sustainable health in mice feeding a high fat sucrose diet

Aaffien C. Reijne 1, 2, 3, , A. Talarovicova 1, 2, 3, , Jolita Ciapaite 2, 3, , J.E. Bruggink 1, , A. Bleeker 2, , Albert K. Groen 2, 3, , Dirk-Jan Reijngoud 2, 3, , Barbara M. Bakker 2, 3, , Gertjan van Dijk 1, 4, ,

  • 1 Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, Dept of Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • 2 Department of Pediatrics, Center for Liver, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • 3 Systems Biology Centre for Energy Metabolism and Ageing, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • 4 Center for Isotope Research, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

received: October 8, 2018 ; accepted: March 6, 2019 ; published: March 11, 2019 ;

https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.101857
How to Cite

Copyright: Reijne et al. This is an open‐access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Diet and physical activity are thought to affect sustainable metabolic health and survival. To improve understanding, we studied survival of mice feeding a low-fat (LF) or high-saturated fat/high sugar (HFS) diet, each with or without free running wheel (RW) access. Additionally several endocrine and metabolic health indices were assessed at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. As expected, HFS feeding left-shifted survival curve of mice compared to LF feeding, and this was associated with increased energy intake and increased (visceral/total) adiposity, liver triglycerides, and increased plasma cholesterol, corticosterone, HOMA-IR, and lowered adiponectin levels. Several of these health parameters improved (transiently) by RW access in HFS and LF fed mice (i.e., HOMA-IR, plasma corticosterone), others however deteriorated (transiently) by RW access only in HFS-fed mice (i.e., body adiposity, plasma resistin, and free cholesterol levels). Apart from these multiple and sometimes diverging health effects of RW access, RW access did not affect survival curves. Important to note, voluntary RW activity declined with age, but this effect was most pronounced in the HFS fed mice. These results thus challenge the hypothesis that voluntary wheel running can counteract HFS-induced deterioration of survival and metabolic health.

Abbreviations

ANOVA: Analysis of Variance; CAMS: Circadian Activity Monitor System; DEE: Daily Energy Expen-diture; EDTA: Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid; ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay; HFS: High Fat diet with lard and refined Sugars; HFS(-) RW: Mice with ad libitum access to High Fat diet with lard and refined Sugars and without access to a running wheel; HFS(+) RW: Mice with ad libitum access to High Fat diet with lard and refined Sugars and with access to a running wheel; HOMA-IR: Homeostatic Model Assessment to quantify Insulin Resistance; HPA-axis: Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adre-nal axis; IGF: Insulin-like Growth Factor; IL: Interleukin; LDL: Low-Density Lipoprotein; LF: Low Fat diet (standard lab chow); LF(-) RW: Mice with ad libitum access to Low Fat diet without access to a running wheel; LF(+) RW: Mice with ad libitum access to Low Fat diet with access to a running wheel; mTOR: mammalian Target of Rapamycin; PBS: Phosphate-Buffered Saline; RW: Running Wheel; SEM: Standard Error of the Mean; TNFalpha: Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha; VLDL: Very Low-Density Lipoprotein.