Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 10 pp 3012—3022
Epigenetic clock analysis of human fibroblasts in vitro: effects of hypoxia, donor age, and expression of hTERT and SV40 largeT
- 1 Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland OH 44106, USA
- 2 Department of Human Genetics and Biostatistics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
- 3 Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Received: January 5, 2019 Accepted: May 3, 2019 Published: May 21, 2019https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.101955
How to Cite
Copyright: Matsuyama et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Aging is associated with a genome-wide change of DNA methylation (DNAm). "DNAm age" is defined as the predicted chronological age by the age estimator based on DNAm. The estimator is called the epigenetic clock. The molecular mechanism underlining the epigenetic clock is still unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of hypoxia and two immortalization factors, hTERT and SV40-LargeT (LT), on the DNAm age of human fibroblasts in vitro. We detected the cell division-associated progression of DNAm age after >10 population doublings. Moreover, the progression of DNAm age was slower under hypoxia (1% oxygen) compared to normoxia (21% oxygen), suggesting that oxygen levels determine the speed of the epigenetic aging. We show that the speed of cell division-associated DNAm age progression depends on the chronological age of the cell donor. hTERT expression did not arrest cell division-associated progression of DNAm age in most cells. SV40LT expression produced inconsistent effects, including rejuvenation of DNAm age. Our results show that a) oxygen and the targets of SV40LT (e.g. p53) modulate epigenetic aging rates and b) the chronological age of donor cells determines the speed of mitosis-associated DNAm age progression in daughter cells.