Vascular calcification is one of the most important factors for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with end-stage renal diseases (ESRD). The current study was aimed to investigate the function and mechanisms of miR-34b on the calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that the expression of miR-34b was significantly suppressed in VSMCs with high inorganic phosphate (Pi) treatment, as well as mouse arteries derived from 5/6 nephrectomy with a high-phosphate diet (0.9% Pi, 5/6 NTP) and human renal arteries from uraemia patients. Overexpression of miR-34b alleviated calcification of VSMCs, while VSMCs calcification was enhanced by inhibiting the expression of miR-34b. Bisulphite sequencing PCR (BSP) uncovered that CpG sites upstream of miR-34b DNA were hypermethylated in calcified VSMCs and calcified arteries due to 5/6 NTP, as well as calcified renal arterial tissues from uraemia patients. Meantime, increased DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) resulted in the hypermethylation of miR-34b in VSMCs, while 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza) reduced the methylation rate of miR-34b and restored the expression of miR-34b in VSMCs. When DNMT3a was knocked down using DNMT3a siRNA, the effect of 3.5 mM of Pi on calcification of VSMCs was abrogated. In addition, Notch1 was validated as the functional target of miR-34b and involved in the process of calcification of VSMCs. Taken together, our data showed a specific role for miR-34b in regulating calcification of VSMCs both in vitro and in vivo, which was regulated by upstream DNA methylation of miR-34b and modulated by the downstream target gene expression, Notch1. These results suggested that modulation of miR-34b may offer new insight into a novel therapeutic approach for vascular calcification.