Mitochondria change their shape through fusion and fission in order to adapt to their metabolic milieu. Mitofusin-2 (MFN2) is a key regulatory protein in this process, mediating mitochondrial fusion and interaction with endoplasmic reticulum. Targeted deletion of Mfn2 in oocytes resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and female subfertility associated with impaired oocyte maturation and follicle development. Oocytes lacking MFN2 showed shortened telomeres and increased apoptosis, resulting in compromised oocyte quality and accelerated follicular depletion, consistent with a reproductive aging phenotype.