GP IIb/IIIa receptor activation plays an important role in thrombosis. The mechanism of early activation of GP IIb/IIIa receptors in diabetic conditions remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the release of Endothelial microparticle (EMP)-associated protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) after endothelial cell injury induced in diabetes and the changes in platelet activation. We produced an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus using ApoE−/− mice. Normal ApoE−/− and diabetic mice were allocated to four groups (n = 15): normal diet, normal diet plus rutin, diabetic, and diabetes plus rutin. The EMP-PDI content and GP IIb/IIIa expression of mice platelets were determined. In addition, EMPs obtained from the four groups were pretreated with the PDI inhibitor rutin; then, their effects on the platelets of normal C57 mice were characterized. Compared with the normal diet group, the diabetic group had significantly increased plasma EMP-PDI content and accelerated platelet activation by increased GP IIb/IIIa expression. In conclusion, EMP-PDI promotes early platelet activation through glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptors present on platelet surface in the diabetic state. However, this process could be partially suppressed by the administration of rutin.