To investigate the existence and their potential biological roles of mitochondrial phosphoproteins (mtPPs) in human ovarian carcinoma (OC), mitochondria purified from OC and control tissues were analyzed with TiO2 enrichment-based iTRAQ quantitative proteomics. Totally 67 mtPPs with 124 phosphorylation sites were identified, which of them included 48 differential mtPPs (mtDPPs). Eighteen mtPPs were reported previously in OCs, and they were consistent in this study compared to previous literature. GO analysis revealed those mtPPs were involved in multiple cellular processes. PPI network indicated that those mtPPs were correlated mutually, and some mtPPs acted as hub molecules, such as EIF2S2, RPLP0, RPLP2, CFL1, MYH10, HSP90, HSPD1, PSMA3, TMX1, VDAC2, VDAC3, TOMM22, and TOMM20. Totally 32 mtPP-pathway systems (p<0.05) were enriched and clustered into 15 groups, including mitophagy, apoptosis, deubiquitination, signaling by VEGF, RHO-GTPase effectors, mitochondrial protein import, translation initiation, RNA transport, cellular responses to stress, and c-MYC transcriptional activation. Totally 29 mtPPs contained a certain protein domains. Upstream regulation analysis showed that TP53, TGFB1, dexamethasone, and thapsigargin might act as inhibitors, and L-dopa and forskolin might act as activators. This study provided novel insights into mitochondrial protein phosphorylations and their potential roles in OC pathogenesis and offered new biomarker resource for OCs.