PRL-3, an oncogenic dual-specificity phosphatase, is overexpressed in 50% of acute myeloid leukemia patients. Stathmin has been identified as a downstream target of PRL-3 in colorectal cancer. However, the correlation between PRL-3 and stathmin in myeloid leukemia is unclear. In this study, we revealed the positive correlation between PRL-3 and stathmin in myeloid leukemia. Knockdown of the PRL-3 gene by shRNA reduced the expression of downstream stathmin, suppressed cell proliferation, induced G2/M arrest and cell apoptosis, and inhibited migration and invasion in myeloid leukemia cells. Moreover, our study was the first to provide evidence that silencing PRL-3 increased the phosphorylation level in Ser16, Ser25, Ser38, and Ser63 of stathmin, and in turn inhibited the STAT3 and STAT5 signaling in myeloid leukemia cells. This evidence points to a promoted role for PRL-3 in the progression of myeloid leukemia, and PRL-3 could be a possible new treatment target.