Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 19 pp 8294—8312
β-arrestin-2 enhances intestinal epithelial apoptosis in necrotizing enterocolitis
- 1 Department of General Surgery, Children’s Hospital of Shanghai, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200000, China
received: May 23, 2019 ; accepted: September 21, 2019 ; published: October 14, 2019 ;https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.102320
How to Cite
Copyright © 2019 Fu et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Apoptosis among intestinal epithelial cells contributes to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a severe intestinal disease that particularly affects premature infants. β-arrestin-2, an important regulator of G-protein-coupled receptors, is expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, where its activation promotes apoptosis. We found that β-arrestin-2 was overexpressed in both human and murine NEC samples. β-arrestin-2-deficient mice were protected from endoplasmic reticulum stress and NEC development. The endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperone BiP was found to promote intestinal epithelial cell survival. Pretreatment of intestinal epithelial cells or mice with the BiP inhibitor HA15 increased cell apoptosis and promoted NEC development. β-arrestin-2 bound to BiP and promoted its polyubiquitination and degradation, thereby facilitating the release of the pro-apoptotic molecule BIK from BiP. Silencing β-arrestin-2 downregulated apoptosis by increasing BiP levels, which suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress. This study suggests that β-arrestin-2 induces NEC development by inhibiting BiP, thereby triggering apoptosis in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies to inhibit β-arrestin-2 may enhance the treatment of NEC.