Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 19 pp 8623—8641
TRIM59 loss in M2 macrophages promotes melanoma migration and invasion by upregulating MMP-9 and Madcam1
- 1 Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China
- 2 Key Laboratory of Pathobiology, Ministry of Education, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China
- 3 Department of Immunology, Jilin University, Changchun, China
Received: July 1, 2019 Accepted: September 27, 2019 Published: October 10, 2019https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.102351
How to Cite
Copyright © 2019 Tian et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The culture supernatant from macrophages overexpressing TRIM59 has a cytotoxic effect on melanoma, but the mechanism remains unclear. To investigate whether deletion of TRIM59 in macrophages affects the metastatic potential of melanoma cells, we polarized control and TRIM59-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages to the M2 phenotype and collected the respective conditioned media (CM). Exposure to CM from TRIM59-/--M2 cultures significantly promoted migration and invasion by B16-F0 and B16-F10 cells. Cytokine profiling indicated a ~15-fold increase in TNF-α production in CM from TRIM59-/--M2 cultures, and neutralizing TNF-α activity abrogated the referred stimulatory effects on cell motility. Transcriptome analysis revealed significant upregulation of MMP-9 and Madcam1 in melanoma cells exposed to TRIM59-/--M2 CM. Inhibitory experiments determined that these changes were also TNF-α-dependent and mediated by activation of ERK signaling. Independent knockdown of MMP9 and Madcam1 in B16-F10 cells impeded epithelial-mesenchymal transition and inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth and formation of metastatic lung nodules in vivo. These data suggest TRIM59 expression attenuates the tumor-promoting effect of tumor-associated macrophages, most of which resemble the M2 phenotype. Moreover, they highlight the relevance of TRIM59 in macrophages as a potential regulator of tumor metastasis and suggest TRIM59 could serve as a novel target for cancer immunotherapy.