Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activator family. MAPK signaling plays a significant role in cell proliferation, differentiation, transcriptional regulation, and development. However, specific function and mechanism of MAP2K4 in breast cancer have not been clarified. According to our study, overexpressed MAP2K4 in breast cancer cells increased proliferation, migration, and invasion in vivo and in vitro, while MAP2K4 knockdown restored the effects. Subsequent mechanistic analyses demonstrated that MAP2K4 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by activating phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling, the downstream proteins, c-JUN, the G1/S cell cycle, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Meanwhile, MAP2K4 interacted with Vimentin and further propagated the malignant phenotype. Furthermore, patients with high MAP2K4 and Vimentin expression levels had poorer overall survival rates than those with low expression levels of both proteins. Our studies demonstrated that MAP2K4 has the potential to serve as an oncogene in breast cancer and it activates the phosphorylated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to activate downstream cycle-associated proteins and EMT signals while interacting with Vimentin to promote breast cancer cells proliferation, migration, and invasion. In our study, MAP2K4 and Vimentin co-expression is confirmed to be an unfavorable factor in breast cancer.