Our pre-experiments found that the brain circRNA sequence profiles and gut microbiota in AD-like mice were changed, as circNF1-419 could enhance autophagy to ameliorate senile dementia in AD-like mice, so we conclude that there might some connections between circRNA and gut microbiome. Therefore, we use the over-expressed circNF1-419 adeno-associated virus (AAV) animal system with the aim of identifying possible connections. Our results showed that over-expression of circNF1-419 in brain not only influenced the cholinergic system of brain, but also changed the gut microbiota composition as the Candidatus Arthromitus, Lachnospiraceae FCS020 group, Lachnospiraceae UCG-006, and [Eubacterium] xylanophilum group, and the intestinal homeostasis and physiology, and even the gut microbiota trajectory in new born mice. These findings demonstrate a link between circRNA and gut microbiome, enlarge the ‘microbiome- transcriptome’ linkage library and provide more information on gut-brain axis.