We investigated the influence of the long noncoding RNA VPS9D1 antisense RNA 1 (VPS9D1-AS1) on the malignant phenotype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and in vivo. We also explored the mechanisms by which VPS9D1-AS1 exerts its oncogenic action during NSCLC progression. VPS9D1-AS1 expression was upregulated in NSCLC; the extent of its upregulation significantly correlated with patients’ adverse clinicopathological characteristics and shorter overall survival. When VPS9D1-AS1 was knocked down in NSCLC cells, their proliferation, colony-forming capacity, migration, and invasiveness were lower, whereas their apoptosis rate was higher, compared to the control. VPS9D1-AS1 knockdown attenuated tumor growth of NSCLC cells in vivo. Mechanistically, VPS9D1-AS1 directly interacted with microRNA-532-3p (miR-532-3p) in NSCLC cells; the impact of VPS9D1-AS1 knockdown on NSCLC cells was attenuated by miR-532-3p inhibition. Furthermore, VPS9D1-AS1 knockdown decreased the expression of high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) in NSCLC cells via miR-532-3p sponging. Recovery of HMGA2 expression partially reversed the inhibitory effects of VPS9D1-AS1 knockdown on NSCLC cells. Thus, VPS9D1-AS1 functions as a competing endogenous RNA that positively regulates HMGA2 expression by sponging miR-532-3p in NSCLC cells, suggesting that the VPS9D1-AS1–miR-532-3p–HMGA2 pathway can be a potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic target in NSCLC.