Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 1 pp 593—610
Attenuation of diabetic kidney injury in DPP4-deficient rats; role of GLP-1 on the suppression of AGE formation by inducing glyoxalase 1
- 1 College of Pharmacy and Gachon Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea
- 2 Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea
- 3 Department of Internal Medicine, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea
- 4 Gachon Medical and Convergence Institute, Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Republic of Korea
received: July 25, 2019 ; accepted: December 23, 2019 ; published: January 6, 2020 ;https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.102643
How to Cite
Copyright © 2020 Sarker et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inactivates incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. DPP4 inhibitors may exert beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy (DN) independently of glycemic control; however, the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of the beneficial effects of DPP4 inhibition on DN using DPP4-deficient (DPP4-def) rats and rat mesangial cells.
Blood glucose and HbA1c significantly increased by streptozotocin (STZ) and no differences were between WT-STZ and DPP4-def-STZ. The albumin level in urine decreased significantly and the albumin/creatinine ratio decreased slightly in DPP4-def-STZ. The glomerular volume in DPP4-def-STZ significantly decreased compared with that of WT-STZ. Advanced glycation end products formation, receptor for AGE (RAGE) protein expression, and its downstream inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic factors in kidney tissue, were significantly suppressed in the DPP4-def-STZ compared to the WT-STZ with increasing glyoxalase-1 (GLO-1) expression responsible for the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MGO). In vitro, exendin-4 suppressed MGO-induced AGEs production by enhancing the expression of GLO-1 and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2, resulting in decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. This effect was abolished by GLO-1 siRNA.
Our data suggest that endogenously increased GLP-1 in DPP4-deficient rats contributes to the attenuation of DN partially by regulating AGEs formation via upregulation of GLO-1 expression.