Resistance exercise (RE) remains a primary approach for minimising aging muscle decline. Understanding muscle adaptation to individual contractile components of RE (eccentric, concentric) might optimise RE-based intervention strategies. Herein, we employed a network-driven pipeline to identify putative molecular drivers of muscle aging and contraction mode responses. RNA-sequencing data was generated from young (21±1 y) and older (70±1 y) human skeletal muscle before and following acute unilateral concentric and contralateral eccentric contractions. Application of weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified 33 distinct gene clusters (‘modules’) with an expression profile regulated by aging, contraction and/or linked to muscle strength. These included two contraction ‘responsive’ modules (related to ‘cell adhesion’ and ‘transcription factor’ processes) that also correlated with the magnitude of post-exercise muscle strength decline. Module searches for ‘hub’ genes and enriched transcription factor binding sites established a refined set of candidate module-regulatory molecules (536 hub genes and 60 transcription factors) as possible contributors to muscle aging and/or contraction responses. Thus, network-driven analysis can identify new molecular candidates of functional relevance to muscle aging and contraction mode adaptations.