Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 3 pp 2659—2669

Effects of resveratrol, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or dichloroacetic acid in the culture media on embryonic development and pregnancy rates in aged mice

Jeong Yoon1,2, , Kyoung-Mi Juhn1, , Eun-Hye Jung1, , Hye-Jeong Park1, , San-Hyun Yoon1, , Yong Ko2, , Chang-Young Hur3, , Jin-Ho Lim4, ,

  • 1 Maria Research Center, Jungnang-gu, Seoul 02098, Korea
  • 2 Korea University, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02473, Korea
  • 3 Maria S Hospital, Jungnang-gu, Seoul 02098, Korea
  • 4 Maria Fertility Hospital, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02586, Korea

Received: October 11, 2019       Accepted: January 12, 2020       Published: February 6, 2020
How to Cite

Copyright © 2020 Yoon et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The success rate of assisted reproductive technology is closely correlated with maternal age. Reproductive aging pathologies are frequently caused by impaired DNA repair, genomic instability, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Several reports have shown that resveratrol can prevent age-related diseases by improving mitochondrial function. Improved blastocyst development and mitochondrial output by dichloroacetic acid (DCA) supplementation were reported in aged mice. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has significant effects on implantation rates in women with previous miscarriages. Therefore, this study was conducted to observe how those compounds influence the developmental and the reproductive potential of aged oocytes. BDF1 female mice at 58–62 weeks old were used for this study. MII oocytes were fertilized and cultured in MRC media supplemented with or without resveratrol (0.5 μM), GM-CSF (2 ng/ml) or DCA (1.0 mM). The addition of resveratrol, GM-CSF or DCA tended to increase blastocyst development and pregnancy rates. Supplementation with resveratrol significantly increased the pregnancy and implantation rates (p < 0.05). Moreover, resveratrol decreased reactive oxygen species production and increased mitochondrial membrane potential. These results suggest that the addition of resveratrol can increase pregnancy outcomes in women of advanced maternal age.


ANOVA: one-way analysis of variance; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; DPC: days post-coitum; DCA: dichloroacetic acid; ET: embryo transfer; GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; hCG: human chorionic gonadotropin; IVF: in vitro fertilization; IVM: in vitro maturation; MII: metaphase II; MMP: mitochondrial membrane potential; PMSG: pregnant mare serum gonadotropin; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TCA: tricarboxylic acid.