Review Volume 12, Issue 3 pp 3053—3094
New landscapes and horizons in hepatocellular carcinoma therapy
- 1 Institute for Biomedical Research and Innovation, National Research Council (CNR), Palermo, Italy
- 2 Department of Health Promotion Sciences Maternal and Infantile Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
- 3 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA
- 4 Tumour Immunology Unit, Human Pathology Section, Department of Health Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
received: December 11, 2019 ; accepted: January 12, 2020 ; published: February 4, 2020 ;https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.102777
How to Cite
Copyright © 2020 Cervello et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is the sixth most frequent form of cancer and leads to the fourth highest number of deaths each year. HCC results from a combination of environmental factors and aging as there are driver mutations at oncogenes which occur during aging. Most of HCCs are diagnosed at advanced stage preventing curative therapies. Treatment in advanced stage is a challenging and pressing problem, and novel and well-tolerated therapies are urgently needed. We will discuss further advances beyond sorafenib that target additional signaling pathways and immune checkpoint proteins. The scenario of possible systemic therapies for patients with advanced HCC has changed dramatically in recent years. Personalized genomics and various other omics approaches may identify actionable biochemical targets, which are activated in individual patients, which may enhance therapeutic outcomes. Further studies are needed to identify predictive biomarkers and aberrantly activated signaling pathways capable of guiding the clinician in choosing the most appropriate therapy for the individual patient.