Prostate cancer (PC) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by variable morphological patterns. Thus, establishing a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model that retains the key features of the primary tumor for each type of PC is important for appropriate evaluation. In this study, we established PDX models of hormone-naïve (D17225) and castration-resistant (B45354) PC by implanting fresh tumor samples, obtained from patients with advanced PC under the renal capsule of immune-compromised mice. Supplementation with exogenous androgens shortened the latent period of tumorigenesis and increased the tumor formation rate. The PDX models exhibited the same major genomic and phenotypic features of the disease in humans and maintained the main pathological features of the primary tumors. Moreover, both PDX models showed different outcomes after castration or docetaxel treatment. The hormone-naïve D17225 PDX model displayed a range of responses from complete tumor regression to overt tumor progression, and the development of castrate-resistant PC was induced after castration. The responses of the two PDX models to androgen deprivation and docetaxel were similar to those observed in patients with advanced PC. These new preclinical PC models will facilitate research on the mechanisms underlying treatment response and resistance.