To investigate the effects of maternal age on the quality of oocytes, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to detect global gene transcriptome and identify key genes affected by advanced age in human mature oocytes. We isolated mRNA from mature oocytes obtained from IVF or ICSI patients (three oocytes from younger (≤30 years) and three oocytes from older (≥40 years) patients for scRNA-seq. We identified 357 genes differentially expressed between matured oocytes from older and younger women's. The up-regulated genes were significantly enriched with annotations related to transcriptional activation, oxidative stress and immune function, while down-regulated genes were enriched with catalytic activity. The key candidate gene TOP2B was found by protein interaction network analysis, and knockdown verification on younger mouse matured oocytes showed that TOP2B was a key gene affecting the oocyte quality and early embryo development. These results will contribute new knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of female ovary aging and establish a criterion to evaluate the quality of oocytes in women with advanced maternal age.