A close relationship between age and gut microbiota exists in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. Long-living people are a model for studying healthy aging; they also have a distinctive microbiota structure. The relationship between the microbiota of long-living people and aging phenotype remains largely unknown. Herein, the feces of long-living people were transplanted into mice, which were then examined for aging-related indices and beneficial bacteria. Mice transplanted with fecal matter from long-living people (L group) had greater α diversity, more probiotic genera (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium), and short-chain fatty acid producing genera (Roseburia, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus) than the control group. L group mice also accumulated less lipofuscin and β-galactosidase and had longer intestinal villi. This study indicates the effects that the gut microbiota from long-living people have on healthy aging.