Clinical manifestations of the late-onset adult Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II) are heterogeneous. To identify genetic defects of a special patient population with cerebrovascular involvement as the main symptom, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis on a consanguineous Chinese family of total eight members including two Pompe siblings both had cerebral infarction. Two novel compound heterozygous variants were found in GAA gene: c.2238G>C in exon 16 and c.1388_1406del19 in exon 9 in the two patients. We verified the function of the two mutations in leading to defects in GAA protein expression and enzyme activity that are associated with autophagic impairment. We further performed a gut microbiome metagenomics analysis, found that the child’s gut microbiome metagenome is very similar to his mother. Our finding enriches the gene mutation spectrum of Pompe disease, and identified the association of the two new mutations with autophagy impairment. Our data also indicates that gut microbiome could be shared within Pompe patient and cohabiting family members, and the abnormal microbiome may affect the blood biochemical index. Our study also highlights the importance of deep DNA sequencing in potential clinical applications.