The effect of calcium on prevention of osteoporosis and related fracture which are aging issues is unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the association of calcium intake with vertebral fracture. This study enrolled 3,457 participants from China Action on Spine and Hip Status (CASH) study from 2013 and 2017. Dietary calcium intake was collected using validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Vertebral fracture of CT images was defined as the primary outcome. The mean calcium intake of men and women were 522.75mg/day and 507.21mg/day, respectively. 6% reduction in the odds of fracture risk was observed per 100 unit increase of calcium intake from food among females (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99), but results among males were not significant. We divided calcium intake into quintiles when modelling its associations with fracture risk, negative associations of fracture risk with calcium intake were found among females. In a population with low usual calcium intake, higher dietary calcium intake was associated with fewer vertebral fracture in women and that no such association was seen in men.