COVID-19 Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 9 pp 7639—7651
Immune environment modulation in pneumonia patients caused by coronavirus: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2
- 1 Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Received: March 20, 2020 Accepted: April 4, 2020 Published: May 2, 2020https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103101
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Copyright © 2020 Yao et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Currently, we are on a global pandemic of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) which causes fever, dry cough, fatigue and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that may ultimately lead to the death of the infected. Current researches on COVID-19 continue to highlight the necessity for further understanding the virus-host synergies. In this study, we have highlighted the key cytokines induced by coronavirus infections. We have demonstrated that genes coding interleukins (Il-1α, Il-1β, Il-6, Il-10), chemokine (Ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl5, Ccl10), and interferon (Ifn-α2, Ifn-β1, Ifn2) upsurge significantly which in line with the elevated infiltration of T cells, NK cells and monocytes in SARS-Cov treated group at 24 hours. Also, interleukins (IL-6, IL-23α, IL-10, IL-7, IL-1α, IL-1β) and interferon (IFN-α2, IFN2, IFN-γ) have increased dramatically in MERS-Cov at 24 hours. A similar cytokine profile showed the cytokine storm served a critical role in the infection process. Subsequent investigation of 463 patients with COVID-19 disease revealed the decreased amount of total lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the severe type patients which indicated COVID-19 can impose hard blows on human lymphocyte resulting in lethal pneumonia. Thus, taking control of changes in immune factors could be critical in the treatment of COVID-19.