MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in many pathological and biological processes, such as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by modulating gene expression. Increasing evidence indicates that miR-378a-3p might provide a potential cardioprotective effect against ischemic heart disease. Cell apoptosis is a crucial mechanism in I/R injury. As such, this study evaluated the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of action of miR-378a-3p on H9C2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis following I/R injury. We found that I/R-induced H9C2 cardiomyocytes exhibited a decrease in miR-378a-3p expression, while treatment with a miR-378a-3p mimic suppressed cell apoptosis, JNK1/2 activation, cleavage of PARP and caspase-3, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio but increased DUSP1 expression, which subsequently inhibited JNK1/2 phosphorylation. TRIM55 was shown to be a target of miR-378a-3p and its downregulation inhibited the miR-378a-3p inhibitor-induced increase in cell apoptosis and JNK1/2 activation. TRIM55 inhibited DUSP1 protein expression through ubiquitination of DUSP1. Moreover, DUSP1 overexpression inhibited the TRIM55 overexpression-induced increase in cell apoptosis and JNK1/2 activation. The protective effect of miR-378a-3p was subsequently confirmed in a rat myocardial I/R model, as evidenced by a decrease in cardiomyocyte apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, TRIM55 expression, and JNK1/2 activation. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-378a-3p may protect against I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via TRIM55/DUSP1/JNK signaling.