Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease of diverse etiology manifesting with proliferation of lung fibroblasts and accumulation of extracellular matrix deposition in pulmonary interstitium. Recent studies show aberrant expression of mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) in human embryonic pulmonary fibroblasts (HEPFs). In this study, we investigated effects of the YY1/HSF1/miR-214/THY1 axis on the functions of HEPFs and IPF. Loss- and gain-of-function tests were conducted to identify roles of YY1, HSF1, miR-214, and THY1 in IPF. As determined by RT-qPCR or western blot assay, silencing YY1 down-regulated HSF1 expression and attenuated the expression of pro-proliferative and fibrosis markers in HEPFs. Meanwhile, viability of HEPFs was impeded by YY1 knockdown. The binding relationship between miR-214 and THY1 was verified using dual-luciferase reporter assay. In HEPFs, down-regulation of HSF1 reduced miR-214 expression to repress proliferation and fibrogenic transformation of HEPFs, while inhibition of miR-214 expression could restrain the fibrogenic transformation property of HEPFs by up-regulating THY1. Subsequently, IPF model in mice was induced by bleomycin treatment. These animal experiments validated the protective effects of YY1 knockdown against IPF-induced lung pathological manifestations, which could be reversed by THY1 knockdown. Our study demonstrates the important involvement of YY1/HSF1/miR-214/THY1 axis in the development of IPF.