Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide manifesting high morbidity and mortality. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), important components of the tumor microenvironment, are essential for tumorigenesis and progression. Exosomes secreted from CAFs have been reported as the critical molecule-vehicle in intercellular crosstalk. However, the precise mechanism underlying the effect of CAFs remains to be fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of CAFs and their exosomes in the progression of GC and related mechanisms. The results revealed that miRNA-34 was downregulated in both GC fibroblasts (GCFs) and GC cell lines while the overexpression of miRNA-34 suppressed the proliferation, invasion, and motility of GC cell lines. Coculturing GC cells with miRNA-34-overexpressing GCFs led to the suppression of cancer progression. Also, exosomes derived from GCFs were taken up by GC cells in vitro and in vivo and exerted antitumor roles in GC. In addition, exosomal miRNA-34 inhibited GC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, 16 genes were identified as potential downstream targeting genes of miRNA-34. Taken together, GCFs-derived exosomal miRNA-34 may be a promising targeting molecule for therapeutic strategies in GC.