This study aimed to figure out the underlying mechanism of miR-142-5p in the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bioinformatics, luciferase assay and Western blot were performed. The NASH mouse model was established through feeding a high fat diet (HFD). Relative expressions of miR-142-5p, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), inflammatory factors were detected by qRT-PCR. The injury level of liver was assessed via measurement of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST). H&E staining and Masson’s trichrome staining examine the liver fatty degeneration and fibrosis. MiR-142-5p and TSLP were differentially expressed and JAK-STAT signaling pathway was activated in the NASH group. Luciferase assay identified that TSLP was the downstream target of miR-142-5p. Through overexpression of miR-142-5p, ALT and AST in serum were inhibited, pro-inflammatory factors, liver fatty degeneration and fibrosis in liver tissues were decreased, while anti-inflammatory factors were increased. Overexpression of TSLP and JAK-STAT signaling pathway activation could reverse the effects of miR-142-5p on NASH. Taken together, overexpression of miR-142-5p could attenuate NASH progression via inhibiting TSLP and JAK-STAT pathway. MiR-142-5p might be a novel latent target for NASH therapy.