Abstract

Type 2 resistant starch (RS2) is a fermentable dietary fiber conferring health benefits. We investigated the effects of RS2 on host, gut microbiota, and metabolites in aged mice on high-fat diet. In eighteen-month old mice randomly assigned to control, high-fat (HF), or high-fat+20% RS2 (HFRS) diet for 16 weeks, RS2 reversed the weight gain and hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet. Serum and fecal LPS, colonic IL-2 and hepatic IL-4 mRNA expressions decreased while colonic mucin 2 mRNA and protein expressions increased in the HFRS compared to the HF and the control group. 16s rRNA sequencing of fecal microbial DNA demonstrated that RS2 decreased the abundance of pathogen taxa associated with obesity, inflammation, and aging including Desulfovibrio (Proteobacteria phylum), Ruminiclostridium 9, Lachnoclostridium, Helicobacteria, Oscillibacter, Alistipes, Peptococcus, and Rikenella. Additionally, RS2 increased the colonic butyric acid by 2.6-fold while decreasing the isobutyric and isovaleric acid levels by half compared to the HF group. Functional analyses based on Clusters of Orthologous Groups showed that RS2 increased carbohydrate while decreasing amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate that RS2 can reverse weight gain, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and increased intestinal permeability in aged mice on high-fat diet mediated by changes in gut microbiome and metabolites.