Review Volume 12, Issue 12 pp 12422—12431
New insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiorenal syndrome
- 1 Department of Nephrology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Chinese PLA Institute of Nephrology, State Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Diseases, Beijing Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, Beijing 100853, China
Received: October 15, 2019 Accepted: May 20, 2020 Published: June 19, 2020https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103354
How to Cite
Copyright © 2020 Wang et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Communication between the heart and kidney occurs through various bidirectional pathways. The heart maintains continuous blood flow through the kidney while the kidney regulates blood volume thereby allowing the heart to pump effectively. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a pathologic condition in which acute or chronic dysfunction of the heart or kidney induces acute or chronic dysfunction of the other organ. CRS type 3 (CRS-3) is defined as acute kidney injury (AKI)-mediated cardiac dysfunction. AKI is common among critically ill patients and correlates with increased mortality and morbidity. Acute cardiac dysfunction has been observed in over 50% of patients with severe AKI and results in poorer clinical outcomes than heart or renal dysfunction alone. In this review, we describe the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for AKI-induced cardiac dysfunction. Additionally, we discuss current approaches in the management of patients with CRS-3 and the development of targeted therapeutics. Finally, we summarize current challenges in diagnosing mild cardiac dysfunction following AKI and in understanding CRS-3 etiology.