To evaluate the effects of short-term administration of enriched branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) on subjects with pre-sarcopenia or sarcopenia, our quasi-experimental study enrolled 33 subjects (12 pre-sarcopenia/21 sarcopenia; 6 men/27 women; mean age 66.6 ± 10.3 years) to take one sachet (3.6 g) of enriched BCAA powder twice a day for five weeks followed by a discontinuation period of 12 weeks. We evaluated sarcopenic parameters, including grip strength, 6-meter gait speed, and bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-derived skeletal mass index (SMI), at baseline, 5 weeks, and 17 weeks. We found that both pre-sarcopenic and sarcopenic subjects showed improved SMI, gait speed, and grip strength at 5 weeks. However, all three parameters progressively declined at 17 weeks, especially SMI and grip strength in subjects aged < 65 years and gait speed and grip strength in subjects aged ≥ 65 years. It thus appears that supplementation with enriched BCAAs for 5 weeks correlates with short-term positive effects on sarcopenic parameters but attenuation of those effects following discontinuation for 12 weeks.