Cancer cells are characterized by metabolic alterations. Thereinto, Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 (SCD1), an enzymatic node located in the conversion of saturated fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), has been reported to accelerate the tumorigenesis of multiple cancers. However, its role in the metabolic process of gastric cancer remains largely unexplored. In this study, by in vitro, in vivo and in silico assessments, our results revealed that SCD1 exhibited the ability to promote tumor growth, migration and anti-ferroptosis of gastric cancer. The underlying mechanism might involve the alteration of cancer stemness and modulation of cell cycle-related proteins. Moreover, based on our findings, high expression of SCD1 might predict poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Our study provided new insights into the potential of SCD1 as a biomarker as well as a therapeutic target in the treatment of gastric cancer.