A variety of novel drugs and advanced therapeutic strategies have been developed for diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs); however, the clinical outcomes are unsatisfactory and the underlying mechanisms of DFU remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate the pathological processes of many diseases. Fibroblasts are involved in each stage of wound healing, and the functions of fibroblasts may be regulated by miRNAs. In the present study, we found that the levels of miRNA-21-3p (miR-21-3p) were decreased in patients with diabetes as compared with those in the healthy control. Similarly, the level of miRNA-21-3p was decreased in fibroblasts that were stimulated with D-glucose as compared with that in the control fibroblasts. Furthermore, enhanced function was found in fibroblasts followed by the miR-21-3p agonist treatment, and a rapid wound healing process was achieved in the miR-21-3p agonist-treated mice. MiR-21-3p directly targeted protein sprout homolog 1 (SPRY1), and the miR-21-3p-regulated reduction in SPRY1 enhanced the function of fibroblasts and accelerated wound healing in vivo. These findings suggest that miR-21-3p may treat DFU by reducing SPRY1.