Chronic sleep restriction promotes neuroinflammation and cognitive deficits in neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases. The spleens of mice exposed to chronic and repeated psychological stress serve as a reservoir of inflammatory myeloid cells that are released into the blood and brain following secondary acute stress. Here, we tested whether chronic and repeated short-term sleep restriction (CRSR) would exacerbate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, and anxiety-like behavior in a spleen-dependent manner. LPS was administered to aged mice 14 days after exposure to CRSR consisting of three cycles of 7 days of sleep restriction with 7-day intervals in between. CRSR increased plasma proinflammatory cytokine levels, blood-brain barrier permeability, hippocampal proinflammatory cytokine levels, and transition of microglia to the M1 phenotype 24 h after LPS treatment. This in turn led to cognitive deficits and anxiety-like behavior. Interestingly, removal of the spleen 14 days prior to CRSR abrogated the enhancement of LPS-induced increases in systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, and anxiety-like behavior. These data indicate that the spleen was essential for CRSR-induced exacerbation of LPS-induced brain damage.