The immunological responses are a key pathological factor in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesized that microglial polarization alters microglia-astrocyte immune interactions in AD. M1 and M2 microglia were isolated from primary rat microglia and were confirmed to secrete pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, respectively. Primary rat astrocytes were co-cultured with M1 or M2 microglial medium. M1 microglial medium increased astrocyte production of pro-inflammatory factors (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor α and IL-6), while M2 microglial medium enhanced astrocyte production of anti-inflammatory factors (IL-4 and IL-10). To analyze the crosstalk between microglia and astrocytes after microglial polarization specifically in AD, we co-cultured astrocytes with medium from microglia treated with amyloid-β (Aβ) alone or in combination with other inflammatory substances. Aβ alone and Aβ combined with lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ induced pro-inflammatory activity in M1 microglia and astrocytes, whereas IL-4/IL-13 inhibited Aβ-induced pro-inflammatory activity. Nuclear factor κB p65 was upregulated in M1 microglia and pro-inflammatory astrocytes, while Stat6 was upregulated in M2 microglia and anti-inflammatory astrocytes. These results provide direct evidence that microglial polarization governs communication between microglia and astrocytes, and that AD debris alters this crosstalk.