Review Volume 12, Issue 21 pp 22313—22334
α-Synuclein in traumatic and vascular diseases of the central nervous system
- 1 Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China
Received: January 30, 2020 Accepted: June 29, 2020 Published: November 7, 2020https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103675
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2020 Zeng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a small, soluble, disordered protein that is widely expressed in the nervous system. Although its physiological functions are not yet fully understood, it is mainly involved in synaptic vesicle transport, neurotransmitter synthesis and release, cell membrane homeostasis, lipid synthesis, mitochondrial and lysosomal activities, and heavy metal removal. The complex and inconsistent pathological manifestations of α-Syn are attributed to its structural instability, mutational complexity, misfolding, and diverse posttranslational modifications. These effects trigger mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammatory responses, resulting in neuronal death and neurodegeneration. Several recent studies have discovered the pathogenic roles of α-Syn in traumatic and vascular central nervous system diseases, such as traumatic spinal cord injury, brain injury, and stroke, and in aggravating the processes of neurodegeneration. This review aims to highlight the structural and pathophysiological changes in α-Syn and its mechanism of action in traumatic and vascular diseases of the central nervous system.