Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 15 pp 15656—15669
CTLA-4 immunotherapy exposes differences in immune response along with different tumor progression in colorectal cancer
- 1 Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Macao, China
Received: April 14, 2020 Accepted: July 7, 2020 Published: August 15, 2020https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103765
How to Cite
Copyright © 2020 Fu et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.
Tumor growth is accompanied by a changing tumor microenvironment and mutations that increase the resistance to therapy. Here, we used syngeneic models to evaluate the drug response of tumors of the same type of different sizes. We used the in vivo efficacy and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay to assess the difference in responses in response to treatment with the same concentration of anti-CTLA-4. Flow cytometry analysis revealed changes in the immune subpopulations changes the spleen, peripheral blood, lymph node, and tumor tissue across different tumor growth phases. For example, naive CD4+T, CD4+TCM, CD8+TEM, T, B, Treg, CD8+TCM exhibited different percentages depending on the specific immune organ. To further expose the changes in the immune microenvironment, the level of expression of PD-1 and CTLA-4 showed statistically significant difference in related subsets for each four immune tissues in different tumor sizes. In addition, the ratios of CD4 + Teff/ CD4 + Treg and CD8 + T/Treg in corresponding immune tissue were also associated with statistically significant differences alongside tumor growth in different animal models. These results reveal the ongoing changes in the immune microenvironment during tumor progression and anti-CTLA-4 antibody immunotherapy effect depends on the expression level of immune factors.