There are limited data on vascular, inflammatory, metabolic risk factors of dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (PD-DM). In a study of 928 subjects comprising of 215 PD with DM (including 31 PD-DM with dementia, PD-DMD), 341 PD without DM (including 31 PD with dementia, PDD) and 372 DM without PD (including 35 DM with dementia, DMD) patients, we investigated if vascular, inflammatory, metabolic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers were associated with dementia in PD-DM. Lower fasting blood glucose (FBG<5mmol/L, OR=4.380; 95%CI: 1.748-10.975; p=0.002), higher homocysteine (HCY>15μmol/L, OR=3.131; 95%CI: 1.243-7.888; p=0.015) and hyperlipidemia (OR=3.075; 95%CI: 1.142-8.277; p=0.026), increased age (OR=1.043; 95%CI: 1.003-1.084; p=0.034) were the most significant risk factors in PDD patients. Lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C<2mmol/L, OR=4.499; 95%CI: 1.568-12.909; p=0.005) and higher fibrinogen (>4g/L, OR=4.066; 95%CI: 1.467-11.274; p=0.007) were the most significant risk factors in PD-DMD patients. The area under the curve (AUC) for fibrinogen and LDL-C was 0.717 (P=0.001), with a sensitivity of 80.0% for the prediction of PD-DMD.

In summary, we identified several factors including LDL-C and fibrinogen as significant risk factors for PD-DMD and these may have prognostic and treatment implications.